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macOS から httpie で APIC-EM へ POST してみる

APIC-EM Cisco macOS

HTTP のテストを行う際に curl を使うことは出来ますが、httpie を使うと「結果を色分け表示する」「JSON を整形して表示する」等、より人間にとって見やすく結果を表示することが出来ます。


macOS であれば Homebrew で簡単にインストール出来ます。

brew install httpie

httpie のコマンドは httpie では無く、http です。http --help でヘルプを表示出来ます。

$ http --help
usage: http [--json] [--form] [--pretty {all,colors,format,none}]
            [--style STYLE] [--print WHAT] [--verbose] [--headers] [--body]
            [--stream] [--output FILE] [--download] [--continue]
            [--session SESSION_NAME_OR_PATH | --session-read-only SESSION_NAME_OR_PATH]
            [--auth USER[:PASS]] [--auth-type {basic,digest}]
            [--proxy PROTOCOL:PROXY_URL] [--follow] [--verify VERIFY]
            [--cert CERT] [--cert-key CERT_KEY] [--timeout SECONDS]
            [--check-status] [--ignore-stdin] [--help] [--version]
            [--traceback] [--debug]
            [METHOD] URL [REQUEST_ITEM [REQUEST_ITEM ...]]

HTTPie - a CLI, cURL-like tool for humans. <http://httpie.org>

Positional Arguments:

  These arguments come after any flags and in the order they are listed here.
  Only URL is required.


  METHOD
      The HTTP method to be used for the request (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, ...).

      This argument can be omitted in which case HTTPie will use POST if there
      is some data to be sent, otherwise GET:

          $ http example.org               # => GET
          $ http example.org hello=world   # => POST

  URL
      The scheme defaults to 'http://' if the URL does not include one.

      You can also use a shorthand for localhost

          $ http :3000                    # => http://localhost:3000
          $ http :/foo                    # => http://localhost/foo

  REQUEST_ITEM
      Optional key-value pairs to be included in the request. The separator used
      determines the type:

      ':' HTTP headers:

          Referer:http://httpie.org  Cookie:foo=bar  User-Agent:bacon/1.0

      '==' URL parameters to be appended to the request URI:

          search==httpie

      '=' Data fields to be serialized into a JSON object (with --json, -j)
          or form data (with --form, -f):

          name=HTTPie  language=Python  description='CLI HTTP client'

      ':=' Non-string JSON data fields (only with --json, -j):

          awesome:=true  amount:=42  colors:='["red", "green", "blue"]'

      '@' Form file fields (only with --form, -f):

          cs@~/Documents/CV.pdf

      '=@' A data field like '=', but takes a file path and embeds its content:

           essay=@Documents/essay.txt

      ':=@' A raw JSON field like ':=', but takes a file path and embeds its content:

          package:=@./package.json

      You can use a backslash to escape a colliding separator in the field name:

          field-name-with\:colon=value


Predefined Content Types:
  --json, -j
      (default) Data items from the command line are serialized as a JSON object.
      The Content-Type and Accept headers are set to application/json
      (if not specified).

  --form, -f
      Data items from the command line are serialized as form fields.

      The Content-Type is set to application/x-www-form-urlencoded (if not
      specified). The presence of any file fields results in a
      multipart/form-data request.


Output Processing:
  --pretty {all,colors,format,none}
      Controls output processing. The value can be "none" to not prettify
      the output (default for redirected output), "all" to apply both colors
      and formatting (default for terminal output), "colors", or "format".

  --style STYLE, -s STYLE
      Output coloring style (default is "monokai"). One of:

          autumn, borland, bw, colorful, default, emacs, friendly,
          fruity, igor, manni, monokai, murphy, native, paraiso-dark,
          paraiso-light, pastie, perldoc, rrt, solarized, tango, trac,
          vim, vs, xcode

      For this option to work properly, please make sure that the $TERM
      environment variable is set to "xterm-256color" or similar
      (e.g., via `export TERM=xterm-256color' in your ~/.bashrc).


Output Options:
  --print WHAT, -p WHAT
      String specifying what the output should contain:

          'H' request headers
          'B' request body
          'h' response headers
          'b' response body

      The default behaviour is 'hb' (i.e., the response headers and body
      is printed), if standard output is not redirected. If the output is piped
      to another program or to a file, then only the response body is printed
      by default.

  --verbose, -v
      Print the whole request as well as the response. Shortcut for --print=HBbh.

  --headers, -h
      Print only the response headers. Shortcut for --print=h.

  --body, -b
      Print only the response body. Shortcut for --print=b.

  --stream, -S
      Always stream the output by line, i.e., behave like `tail -f'.

      Without --stream and with --pretty (either set or implied),
      HTTPie fetches the whole response before it outputs the processed data.

      Set this option when you want to continuously display a prettified
      long-lived response, such as one from the Twitter streaming API.

      It is useful also without --pretty: It ensures that the output is flushed
      more often and in smaller chunks.

  --output FILE, -o FILE
      Save output to FILE. If --download is set, then only the response body is
      saved to the file. Other parts of the HTTP exchange are printed to stderr.

  --download, -d
      Do not print the response body to stdout. Rather, download it and store it
      in a file. The filename is guessed unless specified with --output
      [filename]. This action is similar to the default behaviour of wget.

  --continue, -c
      Resume an interrupted download. Note that the --output option needs to be
      specified as well.


Sessions:
  --session SESSION_NAME_OR_PATH
      Create, or reuse and update a session. Within a session, custom headers,
      auth credential, as well as any cookies sent by the server persist between
      requests.

      Session files are stored in:

          /Users/enbutsu/.httpie/sessions/<HOST>/<SESSION_NAME>.json.

  --session-read-only SESSION_NAME_OR_PATH
      Create or read a session without updating it form the request/response
      exchange.


Authentication:
  --auth USER[:PASS], -a USER[:PASS]
      If only the username is provided (-a username), HTTPie will prompt
      for the password.

  --auth-type {basic,digest}
      The authentication mechanism to be used. Defaults to "basic".

      "basic": Basic HTTP auth
      "digest": Digest HTTP auth


Network:
  --proxy PROTOCOL:PROXY_URL
      String mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy
      (e.g. http:http://foo.bar:3128). You can specify multiple proxies with
      different protocols.

  --follow
      Set this flag if full redirects are allowed (e.g. re-POST-ing of data at
      new Location).

  --verify VERIFY
      Set to "no" to skip checking the host's SSL certificate. You can also pass
      the path to a CA_BUNDLE file for private certs. You can also set the
      REQUESTS_CA_BUNDLE environment variable. Defaults to "yes".

  --cert CERT
      You can specify a local cert to use as client side SSL certificate.
      This file may either contain both private key and certificate or you may
      specify --cert-key separately.

  --cert-key CERT_KEY
      The private key to use with SSL. Only needed if --cert is given and the
      certificate file does not contain the private key.

  --timeout SECONDS
      The connection timeout of the request in seconds. The default value is
      30 seconds.

  --check-status
      By default, HTTPie exits with 0 when no network or other fatal errors
      occur. This flag instructs HTTPie to also check the HTTP status code and
      exit with an error if the status indicates one.

      When the server replies with a 4xx (Client Error) or 5xx (Server Error)
      status code, HTTPie exits with 4 or 5 respectively. If the response is a
      3xx (Redirect) and --follow hasn't been set, then the exit status is 3.
      Also an error message is written to stderr if stdout is redirected.


Troubleshooting:
  --ignore-stdin
      Do not attempt to read stdin.

  --help
      Show this help message and exit.

  --version
      Show version and exit.

  --traceback
      Prints exception traceback should one occur.

  --debug
      Prints exception traceback should one occur, and also other information
      that is useful for debugging HTTPie itself and for reporting bugs.


For every --OPTION there is also a --no-OPTION that reverts OPTION
to its default value.

Suggestions and bug reports are greatly appreciated:

    https://github.com/jkbrzt/httpie/issues

APIC-EM への実行例は以下の通りです。

http --verbose --verify no POST https://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/api/v1/ticket username=admin password=password

--verbose を付けると (レスポンスだけでなく) リクエストの内容も確認出来ます。--verify no を付けると証明書の警告を無視出来ます。username=adminpassword=password のように「=」で値を定義すると body として扱われます。もし username:adminpassword:password のように「:」で区切って値を定義すると (body では無く) header として扱われます。

結果は以下の通りです。

f:id:sig9:20160628143334p:plain